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Eleanor Daniel

By James Riley Estep, Jr.


ELEANOR DANIEL (1940-2017): Administrator, professor, minister, author, but always an educator, Eleanor Daniel is perhaps the most recognized Christian educator in the Stone-Campbell Movement (Christian Churches/Churches of Christ). The most recognized contributions to the field of Christian education within the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ has been through her extensive publishing ministry on the subject of Christian education, focusing on teaching and curriculum in the Sunday school and Vacation Bible School.


Eleanor A. Daniel's journey into Christian education began at home. Born in the small rural community of Detroit, Illinois on February 28, 1940, she was the first of five children to eventually enter the family (two younger sisters and twin brothers). While her mother (Bernice Hilling Daniel, 1913-1998) had made a profession of faith, her father (Don Daniel, 1911-1997) had made no such profession. As such they were not active members of a congregation during her childhood. It was not until a 5th-6th grade teacher invited her to church that Eleanor became active in a congregation, and from this her mother began attending and later her father made his profession of faith when she was 16 years old. Hence, her home was a profound influence on her, as she saw the impact of a teacher and the education ministry of the congregation on the spiritual life of her family.

Eleanor began attending school in first grade at a traditional Midwest one-room school house, with 11 other students. She began to demonstrate her academic abilities early in life. She was placed in the advanced reading group in elementary school, after receiving some assistance from parents and a school teacher to aid her in developing reading skills. She then transferred to a larger community school, which provided a variety of extracurricular activities, such as 4-H agricultural and home economic clubs. She describes her schooling experience as providing her a "solid education," preparing her for study at Lincoln Bible Institute (now Lincoln Christian College). While an adolescent she also participated in the education ministry of the congregation, including summer youth camps, but considered her calling to be a teacher in the public school, never considering a career as a Christian educator.

What led her to study Christian education at Lincoln Bible Institute (Lincoln, Illinois) rather than entering a teacher education program at any number of state universities in Illinois? It started with the early and profound influence that teachers had on her. From the time of elementary school she had the desire to be a school teacher, so education was a passion in her life from a very early age. However, while attending a Life Recruit camp in Lake James Christian Assembly (Angola, Indiana) she was introduced to the idea of Christian education, the teaching ministry of the church, by Willa Swingel, the Christian education minister of First Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana. [Eleanor was not going to be able to attend the camp, but her minister paid for the bus ticket and registration for her to attend.]. While there she was also influenced by Peggy Hileman of Markle, Indiana about the need for Christian education. It was through these encounters that she understood her call to be a teaching minister in the church and to pursue a career in Christian education. "Those people began to talk about how you could use teacher education in Christian education . . . this is how my calling became about doing something for the Lord."

She entered Lincoln Bible Institute in 1958 and graduated summa cum laude in 1962 with a major in Christian education and Bible. While at LBI she was influenced by Gerald Fargusson, one of the early faculty members at the institution. He formed the Christian education program and as she remembers, was "a motivator of the first order [and] extremely formative for me." She also studied with an advanced graduate student named Gerhard Bussmann, who remains on faculty at LCC to this day. While in college she began ministering as the Youth and Christian education minister at First Christian Church (Tuscola, Illinois), serving from 1961-1965. Upon graduating from LCC in 1962 she desired to enter graduate studies.

Eleanor Daniel's academic pursuits and career are interrelated throughout her life, serving in higher education institutions and congregations virtually synonymously. The seminary at Lincoln did not have a Christian education program, but her mentor, Fargusson, created a Christian education program expressly for her by using classes from the University of Illinois (Urbana, Illinois) in combination with independent studies at Lincoln Christian Seminary. She graduated with her MA in Christian Education from LCS in 1965 (Thesis: "A Curriculum Guide for the Church Kindergarten"). While enrolled at LCS she had served as a graduate teaching assistant from 1964-1965 for Fargusson while he was on sabbatical.

Upon graduation from Lincoln Christian Seminary she entered a period of transition ultimately leading her back to Lincoln, Illinois. She assumed the Christian education minister position as Buchanan Church of Christ, Buchanan, Michigan (1965-1967), followed by a teaching position at Midwest Christian College (1967-1971) while also serving part-time at Draper Park Christian Church in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma from 1967-1969. She elected to attend the University of Illinois and completed Master of Education in Educational Psychology in 1969. She also continued her academic studies in Oklahoma, completing five doctoral credits in higher education and statistics from Oklahoma State University (Stillwater, Oklahoma) and ten credits in American history and counseling from Central State University (Edmund, Oklahoma). This would indeed prepare her even more to pursue a Ph.D. in education.

Her homecoming to central Illinois in 1969 was academically motivated. She returned to First Christian Church (Tuscola) as Christian Education Minister from 1969-1973, entering a Ph.D. program in Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois (Urbana). At the University of Illinois she was greatly encouraged by her dissertation advisor, Norman Gronlund, whom she described as "an incredibly capable teacher and evaluator" and supportive of her interest in religious education. Later, she returned to Lincoln, Illinois where she ministered at Lincoln Christian Church from 1973-1978, first as associate minister and then as part-time director of children's education wherein she taught the Bethel series and began a preschool, which still exists to this day. She received her Ph.D. in 1975, with her dissertation reflecting the convictions of a Christian educator, "The Effect of Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Affective and Cognitive Learning in a Religious Education Setting", which was published privately. As she completed her Ph.D. and became part-time at Lincoln Christian Church, she became the Assistant Professor of Christian Education at Lincoln Christian College and Seminary from 1974-1978, and then returned to Midwest Christian College as the Professor of Christian Education (1978-1981). Her approach to Christian education is an integration of her experience as a minister in local congregations and her experience as a student and instructor in higher education. During this time she became active in NAPCE and REA, but never in an official capacity.

Perhaps the most significant move in her career, which propelled her into a position of national recognition among the Stone-Campbell Movement was her move to Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary (Ohio), now Cincinnati Christian University. While serving at CBC&S (1981-1994) she served as Professor of Christian education and later in the academic administration of the institution (Assistant Dean of the College, 1987-1989; Special Assistant to the President for Academic Development, 1989-1990; Dean of the Seminary, 1990-1994). During her tenure as a member of the academic administration she spearheaded the development of a cooperative program with the College of Mount St. Joseph for teacher education and aided in the development of the youth ministry major. Most notably CBC&S received long sought regional accreditation with the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools in 1989. She served as Dean of the Seminary from 1990-1994. It was during this time that she began to participate with the NCA as an eight-time site team member, chairing two of them, between 1990-1994 and eventually being a recognized consultant for institutions seeking accreditation. While she had an impressive publications record prior to her arrival at CBC&S, during these years she produced almost weekly columns in Christian Standard, Lookout, and Key to Christian Education. While at CBC&S she also served part-time at Mt. Washington Church of Christ (now Parkside Christian Church) in Cincinnati from 1981-1984 and again in 1987-1989.

Eleanor Daniel accepted the call to serve as Professor of Christian education and director of institutional research in 1994 at Emmanuel School of Religion, but a year later in 1995 she became the Dean of ESR. She had taught previously at Emmanuel as an adjunct instructor, offering one course per summer from 1974-1993. Perhaps most significant is her relationship with Taking Christ to the Millions Institute's Haus Edelweiss in Heiligenkreuz, Austria. She had started teaching at TCMI in 1990 and has traveled to Austria to teach every year since then, and was a board member from 1995-2004. When she was 62, in 2002, she decided, "I was going to do more stuff with missions." In that year she became the Dean of the TCMI's Haus Edelweiss, which she continued until 2005, after aiding them in their petition for regional accreditation. As she describes, "I was Dean at Emmanuel on May 31 and became Dean at TCMI on June 1 [2002]." She is still actively involved with several accreditation associations as a consultant and site team member.

Eleanor Daniel now resides in Johnson City, Tennessee and is semi-retired. Indicative of her entire career, even in semi-retirement, she has served as Director of Adult Education at First Christian Church in Johnson City, Tennessee since 2005 and continues to teach occasionally in higher education and writes whenever possible.

Addendum: Eleanor Daniel passed away on March 2, 2017 after a lifetime of service.

Contributions to Christian Education

Eleanor Daniel's career spans over 40 years with a coalescing of congregational ministry, teaching and administration in Christian higher education, recognition in practical publishing and writing on Christian education, and international educational work in developing nations. Her contributions have not only been made by her directly, but through those whom she has mentored and equipped for the ministry of Christian education. The following endeavors to cluster her contributions to Christian education.

Revival of the Teaching Ministry

It is safe to say that the majority of Christian education ministers in the Christian Church/Churches of Christ today came under the influence of Eleanor Daniel. While most could claim to be her students (such as myself), all of them were influenced through her writing ministry in such weekly periodicals as Christian Standard, The Lookout, The Key, and most recently Leaven (always on a subject relevant to congregation education ministry), and her numerous books on the success of the Sunday school, teaching methods, and Vacation Bible School. She is indeed recognized as the major voice for Christian education within the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, particularly from1980-2000. Through her instruction, whether in a classroom or the printed page, she advanced the place of the teaching ministry of the local congregation.

Perhaps the greatest influence Eleanor Daniel has made within her own denominational tradition and beyond is through Vacation Bible School. The pre-packaged curriculum for VBS from Standard Publishing Company (Cincinnati, Ohio) was for a very long period the most popular in North America, even being used by congregations outside the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ. Eleanor Daniel served as the chief consultant for VBS curriculum at Standard during the period that it rose to popularity. Standard's materials are still among the most widely used today.

Woman in Ministry

Perhaps one of the most readily recognized contributions made by Eleanor Daniel is in the impact she had on students, both men and women. She advanced the professional status of Christian educators in the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ for more than three decades. At the time she entered the ministry, she was a women in the field of Christian education in a theological tradition that has not been open to women in ministry. Her first ministry was a youth ministry in an era when only men were in youth ministry. However, she received support from the congregation's pastor, Bruce Parmenter, and the youth group grew from 15 to 75 within four years. Ever since these humble beginnings, Eleanor Daniel has been an example to women in the Stone-Campbell Movement who desire to enter ministry. Her abilities and credentials let her to be Dean at two of the three seminaries in the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ; as well as to serve on the executive committee of the North American Christian Convention, the first woman being appointed to the position.

Advancing Christian Higher Education

The institutions at which Eleanor Daniel taught and administrated reflect a distinctive commitment to academic excellence. To her credit, she is the only individual, male or female, to hold faculty rank in all three seminaries of the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ (Lincoln Christian Seminary, Cincinnati Bible Seminary, and Emanuel School of Religion). Add to this her work with TCMI in Austria and her service to the maturing of the higher education in the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ is unparalleled. It is safe to assert that she has one of the most recognized names among faculty and administration of the Bible colleges and seminaries in this tradition. One of her self-acknowledged achievements was successfully leading Cincinnati Christian University (then Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary) through the process of regional accreditation, as well as her more recent venture with Haus Edelweiss. Her work with regional accreditation bodies, principally the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and the Association of Theological Schools has advanced the quality and reputation of higher education in the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ as well as provided a face to our institutions in the broader academic community.

Cross-Cultural Christian Education

Though later in her life, her cross cultural experience in congregational and higher education is indeed impressive. The churches of Europe, particularly eastern Europe, have a symbiotic relationship with Haus Edelweiss, and her work there has been invaluable in advancing the outreach and teaching ministry of these congregations. Through her work many faculty in the United States have been afforded an opportunity for cross-cultural experiences in eastern Europe that they would not have had without her work with TCMI.



  • Daniel, E. (1975). The effect of knowledge of instructional objectives. Privately Published.
  • Daniel, E. (1975). Teaching (How to teach the Bible). Equipping an Every-Member Ministry. Cincinnati: National Bicentennial Committee.
  • Daniel, E. (1979). Teach with success (Rev. ed.). Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Daniel, E., Wade, J. W. & Gresham, C. (1980, 1987). Introduction to Christian education. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Daniel, E. (1982). Training for service (Rev. ed.). Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Daniel, E. (1982). What the Bible says about sexual identity. Joplin, MO: College Press, 1982.
  • Daniel, E. (1986). VBS ideas: How-to's for a successful summer ministry (Rev. ed.). Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Daniel, E. (1993). Kidoggyo Kyoyughag Kaeron. Translation of Introduction to Christian education. Seoul, Korea: Dongsuh Nambuk Press.
  • Daniel, E. (1994). The ABCs of VBS. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Daniel, E. (1999). Foundations of Christian education. Joplin, MO: College Press.

Chapters and Articles in Books

  • Daniel, E. (1967). Devotion. July-August-September.
  • Daniel, E. (1967). Youth like to get involved. Eleanor Doan. Ventura, California: Gospel Light.
  • Daniel, E. (1986). Summer Bible ministries. In Church Educational Ministries. Wheaton, IL: Evangelical Teacher Training Association.
  • Daniel, E. (1990). Kindergarten. In I. V. Cully & K. B. Cully (Eds.), Harper encyclopedia of religious education (pp. 354-356). New York: Harper and Row.
  • Daniel, E. (1990). Timeline. In I. V. Cully & K. B. Cully (Eds.), Harper encyclopedia of religious education (p. 659). New York: Harper and Row.
  • Daniel, E. (1994). Nursery and child care. In J. Berkley (Ed.), Leadership handbooks of practical theology, Vol. 2 (pp. 360-363). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (1994). Vacation Bible school. In J. Berkley (Ed.), Leadership handbooks of practical theology, Vol. 2 (p. 364). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (1994). Children's ministry. In J. Berkley (Ed.), Leadership handbooks of practical theology, Vol. 2 (pp. 365-366). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Classification. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (p. 147). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Constructivism. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (pp. 171-172). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Contiguity. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (pp. 174-175). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Continuous reinforcement. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (p. 176). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Distortion. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (pp. 214-215). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Team teaching. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (p. 689). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2001). Wonder books. In M. Anthony (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of Christian education (p. 727). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
  • Daniel, E. (2004). Educational ministries - Christian churches/churches of Christ. In D. A. Foster et. al. , Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell movement (pp. 295-296). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing House.

Journal Articles

  • Daniel, E. (1963, October). We recommend weekday church school. Lookout, 75 (40), 3.
  • Daniel, E. (1965, January). Today's youth—tormented or God-directed? Christian Standard, 100, 69.
  • Daniel, E. (1966, February). What is camp? Christian Standard, 101, 91.
  • Daniel, E. (1970). Significant problems of Bible college students and implications for the Bible college. Christian Educator's Journal.
  • Daniel, E. (1970, March). God gave his son. Christian Standard, 105, 267.
  • Daniel, E. (1972, July). Church growth column. Lookout. 84 (27), 7.
  • Daniel, E. (1972, March). The occupation of educational minister. Vocational Guidance Quarterly.
  • Daniel, E. (1973). Group dynamics. Bible Teacher and Leader.
  • Daniel, E. (1973). Say Yes! If asked to teach in VBS. Key to Christian Education, 12 (1), 4.
  • Daniel, E. (1974). Growing schools are goal-oriented. Key to Christian Education, 12 (3), 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1974). Bring your class alive through activity teaching. Key to Christian Education 12 (3), 32.
  • Daniel, E. (1975, June). The secret of endurance. Guest Editorial. Lookout, 87 (25), 2.
  • Daniel, E. (1975). Looking for a map to success? Key to Christian Education, 14 (1), 3.
  • Daniel, E. (1976). Celebrate our heritage. Key to Christian Education, 14 (4), 29.
  • Daniel, E. (1976-1977). Your classroom tells on you. Key to Christian Education, 14, 3.
  • Daniel, E. (1977, April). Bring VBS home. Lookout, 89 (17), 3.
  • Daniel, E. (1978, April). VBS + family evangelism = new life. Lookout, 90 (18), 3.
  • Daniel, E. (1978-1979). Try VBS in a nursing home. Key to Christian Education 17, 20.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, February). Something special. Lookout, 91 (7), 6.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, Spring). What VBS can do for you. Key to Christian Education, 17, 2-3.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, Spring). Involve the home in VBS. Key to Christian Education, 17, 24.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, Fall). Recruit them—teach them—watch them grow. Key to Christian Education, 18, 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, September). The Sunday school is still alive. Lookout, 91 (37), 6.
  • Daniel, E. (1979, December). The harvesters had discovered new life. Lookout, 91 (48), 8.
  • Daniel, E. (1980, Summer). How to correct behavior. Key to Christian Education, 18, 13.
  • Daniel, E. (1980, August). The teaching/learning encounter. Christian Standard, 115, 764.
  • Daniel, E. (1980, April). Involve parents in your VBS. Lookout, 92 (16), 9.
  • Daniel, E. (1980, Spring). Who is God's teacher? Key to Christian Education, 18, 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1980, Fall). Classroom fit for a king. Key to Christian Education, 19, 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, March). The big little school. Seminary Review, 1-52.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, January). Changes in education - Reflections Column. Christian Standard, 116, 53.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, March). The shape of things to come. Part 1. Lookout, 93 (9), 2.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, March). The shape of things to come. Part 2. Lookout, 93 (10), 4.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, Spring). Five steps to VBS success. Key to Christian Education, 19, 18.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, April). Please pass the steak. Reflections Column. Christian Standard, 116, 367.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, Summer). Curriculum for church growth. Key to Christian Education, 19, 45.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, July). Hey, mister, can you spare a dime? Reflections Column. Christian Standard, 116, 660.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, Fall). Sharpen your aim. Key to Christian Education, 20, 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1981, October). It's bad form, all right! Reflections Column. Christian Standard, 116, 959.
  • Daniel, E. (1982, October). When should your child be baptized? Lookout, 94 (43), 2.
  • Daniel, E. (1982, December). The relationship of the paid staff to the Sunday school. Christian Standard, 117, 1124.
  • Daniel, E. (1982-1983, Winter). Involve the family in VBS. Key to Christian Education, 22, 20.
  • Daniel, E. (1983). A Bible just for children. Primary Teacher. Standard Publishing Curriculum.
  • Daniel, E. (1983). Family Bible time. Today's Christian Parent. 9-11.
  • Daniel, E. (1983). "Learn by doing." Section following each lesson. Bible Teacher and Leader.
  • Daniel, E. (1983, Spring). Get organized for VBS. Key to Christian Education, 21, 9-10.
  • Daniel, E. (1983-1984). Games teach too! Key to Christian Education, 22, 19.
  • Daniel, E. (1984, Spring). Recruitment: Plan for success. Key to Christian Education, 22, 14.
  • Daniel, E. (1984-1985, Winter). Grasp the basics in discipline. Key to Christian Education, 23, 18.
  • Daniel, E. (1985, Spring). In the footsteps of Jesus: Home Bible study guide. Key to Christian Education, 23, 17.
  • Daniel, E. (1986-1987). Teaching preschoolers. Key to Christian Education, 24 (2), 25.
  • Daniel, E. (1987). Choosing and using curriculum. Key to Christian Education, 25 (1), 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1987, July). We have something new for you. Christian Standard, 122, 321.
  • Daniel, E. (1987-1988). Faith: A developmental view for teachers. Key to Christian Education, 25(2), 1.
  • Daniel, E. (1989). A question method. Key to Christian Education, 28 (1), 4.
  • Daniel, E. (1989). Try learning activities. Key to Christian Education, 28 (1), 4.
  • Daniel, E. (1990). Jesus, the storyteller: How to tell a Bible story. Key to Christian Education, 28, 3-4.
  • Daniel, E. (1990, Fall). What can we assume about adults? Assumptions about adult Sunday school members. Key to Christian Education, 29, 11-12.
  • Daniel, E. (1990, Winter). Teachers need encouragement, too! Key to Christian Education, 29, 13-14.
  • Daniel, E. (1991, Spring). VBS for adults. Key to Christian Education, 24, 13.
  • Daniel, E. (1991, Summer). Start new classes to grow. Key to Christian Education. 29,11-12.
  • Daniel, E. (1991). Caring and sharing with adults. Key to Christian Education. 30, 11-12 .
  • Daniel, E. (1995, July). A pioneer work in India—Frontier evangelism in India. Christian Standard, 130, 648.
  • Daniel, E. (1996, June). Please pass the steak. Lookout, 108 (25), 8.
  • Daniel, E. (1997, September). It's a very long table. Communion Meditation. Christian Standard, 132, 123.
  • Daniel, E. (1998, January). Reflecting on dad. Christian Standard, 133, 66-67.
  • Daniel, E. (1998, April). A Christian educator looks at world mission. Christian Standard, 133, 340-341.
  • Daniel, E. (1998, July). God cares for you even in civil war. Christian Standard, 133, 575-577.
  • Daniel, E. (1998, July). Who will teach adults? Christian Standard 133, 612-613.
  • Daniel, E. (1998, October). A woman reflects on ministry. Christian Standard, 133, 884-885.
  • Daniel, E. (2001, October). A tribute to Leah Moshier. Christian Standard, 136, 882.
  • Daniel, E. (2002). A developmental approach to youth ministry. Leaven, 10(1), 3-10.
  • Daniel, E. (2003). Exploring the process of assessment: report on the ATS workshop on assessing theological learning. Theological Education, 39 (1): 93-100.
  • Daniel, E. (2003, October). How will we treat women in ministry? Christian Standard, 138, 678-679.
  • Daniel, E. (2004, November). Bless be the tie that binds. Christian Standard, 139, 717.
  • Daniel, E. (2004, November). Come to the table. Christian Standard, 139, 731.

Book Reviews

  • Daniel, E. (2000). [Book review on I love to tell the story: Storytelling in children's sermon]. Encounter, 61(3), 382-383.
  • Daniel, E. (1999). [Book review on Hear, my son: Teaching and learning in Proverbs 1-9]. Religious Education, 94, 234-236.
  • Daniel, E. (1999). [Book review on Basics of Christian teaching]. Religious Education, 94, 356-358.
  • Daniel, E. (1999). [Book review on The Christian educators handbook of children's ministry]. Religious Education, 94, 356-358.
  • Daniel, E. (1997). [Book review on By what authority do we teach]. Religious Education, 92, 133-134.
  • Daniel, E. (1997). [Book review on How we learn: A Christian teacher's guide to educational psychology]. Religious Education, 92, 134-136.
  • Daniel, E. (1997). [Book review on Community that is Christian: A handbook on small groups]. Religious Education, 92, 417-418.
  • Daniel, E. (1988). [Book review on God's choice: The total world of a fundamentalist Christian school by A. Peshkin]. Religious Education, 83, 308-310.
  • Daniel, E. (1987). [Book review on Imagination: Embracing a theology of wonder by C. Forbes]. Religious Education, 82, 512.
  • Daniel, E. (1989). [Book review on Inside America's Christian schools by P. Parsons]. Religious Education, 84, 305-306.
  • Daniel, E. (1988). [Book review on Parents, kids, and sexual integrity by D. M. Joy]. Religious Education, 83, 630-632.
  • Daniel, E. (1985). [Book review on Paul, the leader by J. O. Sanders]. Christian Education Journal, 6 (1), 77. Numerous short book reviews in Seminary Review, Christian Standard, and Leaven.


  • Beginner Teacher. VBS Curriculum for 1988, 1994. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1988, 1994.
  • Bible Teacher and Leader. "Learn by Doing." Fall 1981, Fall 1982, Fall 1983, two quarters in 1984 and 1988, one quarter each year 1985-1994. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Christian Youth Hour. Six-weeks units for 1963, 1964, 1965.
  • Junior and Youth AV Pak. Produced record for 1973. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1973.
  • Junior Teacher. One quarter junior church for 1985. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1985.
  • Junior Teacher. VBS Curriculum for 1973, 1975-1988, 1990, 1991. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.
  • Middler Teacher. One quarter for 1977, 1981, 1985. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1977, 1981, 1985.
  • Middler Teacher. VBS Curriculum for 1988, 1994. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1988, 1994.
  • My Weekly Bible Reader. One quarter for 1967. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1967.
  • Nursery Teacher. VBS Curriculum for 1987. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1987.
  • Primary Teacher. One quarter for 1967. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1967.
  • Training Successful Teachers. Leader's guide and consultant for development of the project. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1984.
  • Young Teen Teacher. One quarter for 1987. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1987.
  • Youth Teacher. One quarter for 1979, 1981. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1979, 1981.

Videorecordings/Sound Recordings

  • Daniel, E. (1989). Some to be teachers. Series and Leader's Guide. [Videorecording]. Joplin, MO: Good News Productions.
  • Root, O. (1995). Training for service: A survey of the Bible (E. Daniel, Rev.) (4th ed.). [Sound Recording]. Milwaukee: Volunteer Services for the Visually Handicapped.

Excerpts from Publications

Daniel, E. (1975). The effect of knowledge of instructional objectives, concluding materials, pp. 44-45, "Importance of Objectives". , (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana). Published privately.

"As a result of this study, it may be concluded that knowledge of general and specific objectives tends to affect affective outcomes of appreciation, satisfaction, and devotion in a religious education setting with adults. Knowledge of general and specific objectives did not affect cognitive outcomes. Yet, cognitive outcomes were not hindered when students had knowledge of the objectives.

This conclusion has important implications for curriculum developers and practitioners in Christian education. . . . The Christian educator has the whole of the Bible from which to choose content for teaching.

According to the view of the church represented in this study, all of the Bible is God's revelation to man. The learner must respond in some way to the content. Sound specific objectives identify appropriate responses as well as priorities in selection of content and learning experiences.

Affective objectives have seldom been stated specifically in religious education. They too serve the same functions as cognitive objectives in identifying content priorities and learning experiences. In addition, knowledge of general and specific affective objectives seems to have a significant effect on learning outcomes.

There is an urgency attached to the specific statement of objectives in the affective domain in Christian education. Individual discipleship, the goal of Christian education, is measured more by affective behavior - awareness, appreciation, satisfaction, commitment - than by cognitive activities such as knowledge, understanding, and analysis.

If these learning outcomes can be achieved more efficiently with student knowledge of specific objectives, as this study indicates, then materials should be developed with specific objectives to be communicated to the students.

Evaluation of Christian education programs has been almost nil. One reason is the lack of specific objectives to give direction to evaluation. . . .

Statement of specific objectives will aid Christian educators in evaluating cognitive and affective learning of pupils in a systematic fashion. Then decisions may be made on the basis of more than mere intuition.

The researcher strongly recommends that publishing companies recognize the need of developing materials on the basis of specifically stated cognitive and affective objectives. Supervisors of education in local congregations need to prepare to use specific objectives with maximum efficiency."

Daniel, E. (1975). Teaching (how to teach the Bible), Equipping an every-member ministry series. , Cincinnati, Ohio: Bicentennial Committee, p. 2.

"WHO ME TEACH? A TEACHER?: AN INTRODUCTORY THOUGHT - Teaching the Word of God to another is exciting business! The fact that God allows us, as fallible human instruments, to teach His Word to those who need to grow in Him is a privilege beyond measure. That God holds us responsible for a clear, Biblically-sound presentation of the Word is a sobering responsibility.

The Bible clearly indicates the responsibility of teaching. Not everyone possesses the gift of teaching, as stated in the New Testament, but everyone does carry the obligation to at least share the Good News with others in presenting a defense of the faith of in answering his hop for the faith [citing 2 Timothy 2:15, 1 Peter 3:15].

The church of the New Testament attended to teaching. As early as the founding of the church, the Bible states that the new Christians devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching (Acts 2:42). In Acts 6, deacons were selected to perform a specific ministry to the widows because the apostles' priority was prayer and the ministry of the Word. Prophets and teachers were identified in the church at Antioch (Acts 13:1). Christians in Berea examined the Scriptures daily (Acts 17:11) and were, therefore, identified as being more noble-minded than the brethren in Thessalonica.

Paul mentioned the gift of teaching three times in the Epistles (Romans 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:28, Ephesians 4:11). Teaching is mentioned as a gift of functional service in the church to build up the disciples in the faith and to strengthen the body of ministry and for glorifying Christ. [Citing 2 Timothy 2:2.] Over and over again, the New Testament imperative rings: The Word of God must be propagated by faithful transmitters - teachers!

Teaching also imposes obligations upon the teacher. [Citing 2 Timothy 2:15 and Titus 2:1.] The urgency of the responsibility is summed up in James 3:1 (NASB): 'Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, knowing that as such we shall incur a stricter judgment.' The teacher is responsible for what and how he teaches.

Indeed the task of teaching is a big job. But it is God's job. How fortunate we are to share in it!"

Daniel, E. (1977). Vacation Bible school ideas: How-to's for a successful summer ministry. , Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing, p. 9.

"VBS - Why? Clearly stated goals for your VBS are a must if you are to use your energy and resources efficiently. Since you have limited time and resources, you really have little choice except to plan carefully.

Two major goals stand out. The first is evangelism and outreach. This has always been a major thrust of the VBS since its inception - at least until recent years. Refreshing new breezes of evangelistic effort seem to be blowing again these days.

VBS allows you unique opportunities to reach those unreached by a traditional Sunday-program. Children usually want something to do when they aren't in school. They are, then, susceptible to a VBS invitation. Go all out and reach them. If those who attend VBS, and their families, are follow up with an evangelistic interest, outreach will be achieved.

Teaching and training is a second major goal. Once the children are at VBS, there is ample time to introduce and reinforce Biblical truths. VBS should teach and train both the Christian and the unsaved. Careful planning must be given to every facet of the VBS program to make sure good teaching is done.

Other goals may permeate your planning. Some churches make VBS a time for missions' emphasis and education. Others program heavily for recreation. Still others emphasize crafts and/or music. These all seem to be legitimate program emphases if they are plugged into the broader goals of evangelism and teaching.

No one can define your church's goals except those of you who make up the congregation. No one can define the direction for your VBS except those who are called to lead it. One would hope, however, that you will strike a fine balance between evangelism and teaching. The choice is critical, for it colors every other decision you make."

Daniel, E., Wade, J. W. & Gresham, C. (Eds.). (1980). Introduction to Christian education. , Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing, p. 90.

"What qualities are part of that unique personality that makes an effective teacher? The following acrostic suggest some of the necessary qualities.

T - teachability. An effective teacher is willing to learn. He seeks new information, tried new methods, and continues to grow in his personal spiritual life.

E - example. An effective teacher, especially in the Sunday school, must be a worthy example of what he is teaching. . . . The teacher models the process of Christian growth.

A - attitude. An effective teacher is positive. He believes in his pupils. He believes that he is doing God's work. He really wants to teach.

C - commitment. An effective teacher is committed first to the Lord Jesus Christ, to His Word, the Bible, and to the ministry of sharing Jesus with people. He is committed even in the face of difficulties that he will most certainly encounter.

H - sense of humor. An effective teacher possesses a healthy sense of humor. Although he need not be an extremely witty person, he appreciates the humor of his students and circumstances.

E - enthusiasm. An effective teacher has a zest for living, a joy in the Christian life, and the enthusiasm to share his joy with the individuals who make up his class.

R - good relationships with people. An effective teacher understands that his goal is to help individuals to know the Lord. Therefore, he loves people and builds personal relationships with them. He is interested in people and is sensitive to their needs. He never forgets that his message is to people and for people. . . .

Leavitt, G. P. (1979). Teaching with success (E. Daniel, ed.). , Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing, pp. 43, 44.

"WHY DO WE TEACH THE BIBLE? You teach the Bible to enable your pupils to learn and to practice what God would have them learn and do. Earlier in this book we devoted a chapter to your purpose as a teacher. Here it is repeated in seventeen words - to enable your pupils to learn and to practice what God would have them know and do. . . .

But let the teacher know this:

1. He is never going to know everything the Bible has to teach, no matter how long he studies it.

2. The more he studies it, the more he will realize its depth and unattainable riches.

3. The more he teaches it contents to others, the more he will earn, for the teacher always learns more than the pupil

4. Because he is a volunteer worker with many other duties, he does not have the time to do all of the preparation necessary. Therefore he is provided with quarterlies, commentaries, paper and other helps which aid him in his study of the Bible.

5. He ought, however, to understand the Bible to an extent that will help him to separate the wheat from the chaff in lesson helps.

6. He ought also to be better informed regarding the Scriptures than are those whom he is teaching. . . .

7. The teacher ought to be award of a great truth. The Bible is God speaking to us. Prayer is when we talk with him, but in the Holy Scriptures God talks with us. Regard them accordingly. Never try to explain them away. Do not apologize for them. Do not put men's opinions ahead of them. Teach them for what they are - God's Word."

Daniel, E. (1994). The ABC's of VBS. , Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing, pp. 13-14.

"And what about its [VBS'] future? Will VBS continue to be the same effective tool that it has been to the present? VBS has been a flexible tool. Though there are many similarities between Mrs. Hawes' first VBS and one conducted today, the changes are also evident. VBS is shorter in length now, but probably with little significant loss of ministry because of more extensive youth and camping programs than there were in the past. Now VBS often meets at night, allowing inclusion of a far wider age group than in 1898. Today's VBS sometimes moves out of the church building into backyard settings in a effort to penetrate neighborhoods evangelistically. For a time, evangelistic emphasis seemed to wane in many churches, but a recent resurgence of interest has changed that. All in all, VBS has been a wonderfully flexible tool. The future is bright as churches catch a vision of the magnitude of the VBS ministry."

Daniel, E. (1999). Psychological Foundations. In E. A. Daniel & J. W. Wade (Eds.), Foundations of Christian education. , Joplin, Missouri: College Press.

"Human learners are a unique creation. Scripture tells us so. Learners are developing persons, those in process, and are governed by the principles of human development. Effective educators understand both the biblical and psychological realities as they plan programs and lessons to meet the needs of learners.

The Human Learner: A Unique Creation

Human learners possess a uniqueness that must be understood by a prospective teacher. This uniqueness cannot be seen apart from Scripture. Persons are a creation of God, the crowning part of God's creative enterprise (Psalm 8). They were made in God's image (Genesis 1:27; 5:1), created to have fellowship with Him. These divinely created individuals share in God's ability to feel, to think, to express emotion, and to be able to distinguish right from wrong. They were given by God the task of managing the remainder of the creation and to subdue and use it for their own enjoyment and to honor God (Genesis 1:28-30; Psalm 8:6-8). Humans were made for relationship, to experience the full gamut of emotions, to love and be loved, to feel, to respond. They were created with the ability to choose whether or not to obey God (Genesis 2:15-16).

However, people chose to disobey God, to pursue their own devices rather than to follow God's desires for His people. The result was sin, the awful separation of God from His creation record in Genesis 3. And when sin entered the world, every aspect of humankind's makeup was affected. Thinking became distorted. Emotions were misused and abused (Ephesians 4:26). Right and wrong became blurred in the minds of people (Genesis 2:15-16). Humankind no longer possessed the ability to fellowship with God.

But there is a third act to the drama of human history. God, desiring that none should perish, provided the means by which persons can be restored to a right relationship with Him. He sent His Son, Jesus Christ, to pay the penalty for sin and to redeem those who would entrust their lives to God's direction (Ephesians 2:1-10). What was formerly impossible for mankind in terms of fellowship with God now become possible through the work of Christ (Romans 5:17, 19).

The restoration process is designed to restore mankind in God's image. It is what theologians call the process of sanctification or the idea of Christian growth. Whatever it is called, humankind begins once more to demonstrate the thinking, emotional, moral, and feeling capabilities of God. Bit by bit people develop into Christlikeness (Colossians 1:28).

Not every learner is at the same stage of development in the Christian growth process. Some are relatively immature while others demonstrate relative maturity. It is a developmental process to be taken into account by perceptive teachers.

Daniel, E. (1999). Curricular Foundations. In E. A. Daniel & J. W. Wade (Eds.), Foundations of Christian education. , Joplin, Missouri: College Press, pp. 103-104.

"Every church must make curriculum decisions. Some churches do so on the basis of careful planning. Others do little planning and supervision. To choose the latter option is to abdicate responsibility as leaders to plan for the best possible Christian education for the church. . . .

A conscientious leadership team should give careful attention to the curriculum for Christian education – not just for Sunday school, but for the total Christian education program. It may work to design a curriculum one program at a time – but over time, it should consider how curriculum for all programs fit together. It may involve teachers and professional educators in their planning process. Only after some planning has been done should actual materials be selected.

Should teachers be allowed to choose their own materials? If curriculum is planned and materials are chosen as carefully as we have outlined in this chapter, then specific materials are chosen for specific purposes. Teachers should, of course, be permitted – even encouraged – to develop each session as they deem best given the Scripture and their learners. But the actual curriculum guide provides structure, sequence, and organization for the teaching task of the church.

But may no deviations occur? It may be desirable to deviate from the planned curriculum guide at times. Perhaps a special need has arisen that should be addressed. In that case the curriculum guide may be altered and new materials provided. Such deviations should not be common. They should be planned to meet a need and accomplish a goal. Teachers may suggest the alteration. But the change should b approved by the leadership team."

Daniel, E. (1979). Teach with success (Rev. ed.). , Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.

Daniel, E. (1982). Training for service (Rev. ed.). , Cincinnati: Standard Publishing.

Daniel, E. (1982). What the Bible says about sexual identity. , Joplin, MO: College Press.

Daniel, E. (1994). The ABCs of VBS. , Cincinnati: Standard Publishing

Daniel, E. (1999). Foundations of Christian Education. , Joplin, MO: College Press.

Other Resources

Eleanor Daniel, Interview, 2005 by James Riley Estep, Jr.

Earl W. Sims, The maturing of the Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary: A personal, anecdotal view of CBC&S, 1924-2002. Published Privately, 2003.

Author Information

James Riley Estep, Jr.

James Riley Estep, Jr. is the Professor of Christian Education at Lincoln Christian Seminary, as well as an Associate Dean at Lincoln Christian College. He also serves as Director of Academic Assessment and Faculty Development for the campus. He was a student of Warren Benson's from 1994-1999 at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (Deerfield, IL).