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Courses | B.S. in Biological Science

Below are some of the courses you’ll have an opportunity to take as a student in this program. Take a look at the list below to get an idea of the types of available courses. Also, be sure to review core curriculum requirements and the official program requirements in the Biola University catalog.

Note: This list is intended to give you a quick glimpse into the program’s academic offerings, and should not be used as a guide for course selection or academic advising.

Concentrations

General Biology

Core courses:

Introductory course for majors emphasizing the principles of cellular and molecular biology, genetics, and development. Grade Mode: A.

Introductory course for biological science majors emphasizing the principles of systematics and biodiversity, population genetics and origins theories, ecology, and anatomy and physiology. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory accompanies BIOS 111 and is divided between observational and experimental approaches, with emphasis on the collection and interpretation of quantitative data. Frequent lab discussion of relevant issues and literature will be included. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory, which accompanies BIOS 114, will involve dissection as well as experimentation. A field project involving the La Mirada Creek is included. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Writing for competency in the biological sciences. Students will get instruction and practice in science writing for the biological sciences as well as the two portions of the writing competency requirement. At the end of the course, students will take the timed writing portion of the writing competency requirement. Notes: This course is required for all biological sciences, human biology and environmental science majors. It is highly recommended that this course be taken during the student's sophomore year, but it may be taken later. Grade Mode: A.

The study of the organs, tissues, functions and responses to environment of typical flowering plants and the morphology and life history of the major lower plant groups. Field work required, including collection and classification of native plants for the Biola Herbarium. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. There will be some Saturday field trips. Grade Mode: A, N.

A study of the basic concepts of physiological regulation from the level of the cell to the integrated intact organism including neural, muscular, and neuro-endocrine regulatory systems. Laboratory includes human systems analysis and electrophysiology. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour pre-lab, three hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

A study of microbial organisms with emphasis on bacteria and viruses, including their morphology, physiology, metabolism and genetics; host parasite interactions; humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Laboratory practice in handling microorganisms, including identification and culture techniques. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

Discusses the molecular organization and function of cells and their organelles, with emphasis on chromosome structure, gene expression, membrane structure and function, energy conversion, and experimental methods used to study subcellular components. Grade Mode: A.
Practical application of traditional and current laboratory techniques used in research and industry, including microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology, chromosomal analysis, tissue cell culture, isolation and purification of DNA, RNA and proteins, PCR, proper documentation and protocols and other laboratory writing skills are emphasized. Lecture/Lab Hours: Six hours of laboratory, one hour discussion. Grade Mode: A.
Integrates principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics toward understanding structure and function of the gene. Emphasizes quantitative analysis of genetic data and explores current issues of genetic engineering from technical and ethical viewpoints. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours lab. Grade Mode: A, N.
Same as BIOS 282, with the additional requirement of microbial isolation and identification of field and clinical samples. An 8–10 page research paper and presentation on one of these isolations is also required. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Discusses the mechanisms of integration and homeostasis at the cellular, organ and system levels. Muscular, neural, vascular, excretory, and endocrine interactions are studied. Variations between vertebrate groups are presented. Includes a major research project. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
An introduction to the general concepts of the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems, including physiological ecology, speciation and evolutionary theory. Laboratory includes field trips and a research project. Grade Mode: A, N.
Literature and laboratory or field research of a specific subject or technique in biology; advanced students gain experience in experimental design, laboratory investigation and technical writing. Notes: Special approval required. Requires a written report. May be taken in subsequent semesters for a total of 4 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Literature research followed by oral presentation, group discussion and evaluation; independent thought and study stressed. Notes: May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Supporting Sciences Course Options:

Principles and theories of the structure and properties of matter including stoichiometry, atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonding, molecular structure, nomenclature, chemical reactions, states of matter, gas laws and solutions. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

Continuation of General Chemistry I. Subjects include chemical kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, solubility, acidity, electrochemistry, coordination complexes and various special topics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: A minimum grade of a "C-" is required to subsequently register in CHEM 321 and 322 or CHEM 301 and CHEM 311. Grade Mode: A, N.

The first semester of the traditional yearlong course in organic chemistry. Structure, properties and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds with emphasis on reaction mechanisms. An introduction to the major functional groups and the instrumental methods for structure determination: IR, NMR, and MS. Grade Mode: A.
Continuation of Organic Chemistry I. Continued work with more complicated reactions and mechanisms. An introduction to computer-based drawing and searching tools. The last third of the course is devoted to the structure and properties of major biochemical substances. Grade Mode: A.

Basic laboratory techniques for the synthesis, isolation, purification and analysis of organic compounds including the major chromatographic methods, TLC, GC, LC. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Continuation of the laboratory methods in organic chemistry including the major structural determination and analysis tools of NMR, IR, HPLC, UV/Vis. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Sets, the real number system, relations, functions, graphs, algebraic processes, inequalities, trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, introduction to sequences. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. May not be counted toward the major. Grade Mode: A.
Limits, differentiation and integration of rational and trigonometric functions, with applications. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Nature of statistical methods, description of sample data, fundamental concepts of probability, probability distributions, sampling, estimation, correlation and regression, application of same. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Prepares the student for biostatistical application essential to practice in evidence-based professions. Content includes: descriptive statistics; probability theory and rules; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling distributions; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing; experimental design; ANOVA; linear and multiple regression; contingency table analysis; non-parametrics; survival analysis; discussion of the use of statistics in journal articles. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Credit given for only one of 210 and 318. Grade Mode: A.
A study of mechanics, heat and sound. Intended for non-Physical Science majors. Principles are treated quantitatively but without a calculus requirement. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.
Continued from Physics I; includes electricity, magnetism, elementary circuits, optics, and modern physics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Grade Mode: A, N.

Application of the laws and theories of mechanics, heat and sound through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics I. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Application of the laws and theories of electricity, magnetism, circuits and optics through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics II. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Premed/Pre-Health Care Professional

Core Courses:

Introductory course for majors emphasizing the principles of cellular and molecular biology, genetics, and development. Grade Mode: A.

Introductory course for biological science majors emphasizing the principles of systematics and biodiversity, population genetics and origins theories, ecology, and anatomy and physiology. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory accompanies BIOS 111 and is divided between observational and experimental approaches, with emphasis on the collection and interpretation of quantitative data. Frequent lab discussion of relevant issues and literature will be included. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory, which accompanies BIOS 114, will involve dissection as well as experimentation. A field project involving the La Mirada Creek is included. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Writing for competency in the biological sciences. Students will get instruction and practice in science writing for the biological sciences as well as the two portions of the writing competency requirement. At the end of the course, students will take the timed writing portion of the writing competency requirement. Notes: This course is required for all biological sciences, human biology and environmental science majors. It is highly recommended that this course be taken during the student's sophomore year, but it may be taken later. Grade Mode: A.

A study of the basic concepts of physiological regulation from the level of the cell to the integrated intact organism including neural, muscular, and neuro-endocrine regulatory systems. Laboratory includes human systems analysis and electrophysiology. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour pre-lab, three hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

A study of microbial organisms with emphasis on bacteria and viruses, including their morphology, physiology, metabolism and genetics; host parasite interactions; humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Laboratory practice in handling microorganisms, including identification and culture techniques. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

Discusses the molecular organization and function of cells and their organelles, with emphasis on chromosome structure, gene expression, membrane structure and function, energy conversion, and experimental methods used to study subcellular components. Grade Mode: A.
Practical application of traditional and current laboratory techniques used in research and industry, including microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology, chromosomal analysis, tissue cell culture, isolation and purification of DNA, RNA and proteins, PCR, proper documentation and protocols and other laboratory writing skills are emphasized. Lecture/Lab Hours: Six hours of laboratory, one hour discussion. Grade Mode: A.
Integrates principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics toward understanding structure and function of the gene. Emphasizes quantitative analysis of genetic data and explores current issues of genetic engineering from technical and ethical viewpoints. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours lab. Grade Mode: A, N.
Same as BIOS 282, with the additional requirement of microbial isolation and identification of field and clinical samples. An 8–10 page research paper and presentation on one of these isolations is also required. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Discusses the mechanisms of integration and homeostasis at the cellular, organ and system levels. Muscular, neural, vascular, excretory, and endocrine interactions are studied. Variations between vertebrate groups are presented. Includes a major research project. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
An introduction to the general concepts of the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems, including physiological ecology, speciation and evolutionary theory. Laboratory includes field trips and a research project. Grade Mode: A, N.
Literature and laboratory or field research of a specific subject or technique in biology; advanced students gain experience in experimental design, laboratory investigation and technical writing. Notes: Special approval required. Requires a written report. May be taken in subsequent semesters for a total of 4 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Literature research followed by oral presentation, group discussion and evaluation; independent thought and study stressed. Notes: May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Supporting Sciences Course Options:

Principles and theories of the structure and properties of matter including stoichiometry, atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonding, molecular structure, nomenclature, chemical reactions, states of matter, gas laws and solutions. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

Continuation of General Chemistry I. Subjects include chemical kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, solubility, acidity, electrochemistry, coordination complexes and various special topics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: A minimum grade of a "C-" is required to subsequently register in CHEM 321 and 322 or CHEM 301 and CHEM 311. Grade Mode: A, N.

The first semester of the traditional yearlong course in organic chemistry. Structure, properties and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds with emphasis on reaction mechanisms. An introduction to the major functional groups and the instrumental methods for structure determination: IR, NMR, and MS. Grade Mode: A.
Continuation of Organic Chemistry I. Continued work with more complicated reactions and mechanisms. An introduction to computer-based drawing and searching tools. The last third of the course is devoted to the structure and properties of major biochemical substances. Grade Mode: A.

Basic laboratory techniques for the synthesis, isolation, purification and analysis of organic compounds including the major chromatographic methods, TLC, GC, LC. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Continuation of the laboratory methods in organic chemistry including the major structural determination and analysis tools of NMR, IR, HPLC, UV/Vis. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Sets, the real number system, relations, functions, graphs, algebraic processes, inequalities, trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, introduction to sequences. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. May not be counted toward the major. Grade Mode: A.
Limits, differentiation and integration of rational and trigonometric functions, with applications. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Nature of statistical methods, description of sample data, fundamental concepts of probability, probability distributions, sampling, estimation, correlation and regression, application of same. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Prepares the student for biostatistical application essential to practice in evidence-based professions. Content includes: descriptive statistics; probability theory and rules; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling distributions; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing; experimental design; ANOVA; linear and multiple regression; contingency table analysis; non-parametrics; survival analysis; discussion of the use of statistics in journal articles. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Credit given for only one of 210 and 318. Grade Mode: A.
A study of mechanics, heat and sound. Intended for non-Physical Science majors. Principles are treated quantitatively but without a calculus requirement. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.
Continued from Physics I; includes electricity, magnetism, elementary circuits, optics, and modern physics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Grade Mode: A, N.

Application of the laws and theories of mechanics, heat and sound through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics I. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Application of the laws and theories of electricity, magnetism, circuits and optics through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics II. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Environmental Science

An interdisciplinary approach to the study of the environment using concepts from ecology, biology, chemistry, geology, the social sciences and Scripture to understand the interplay of natural resources, how humans are affecting the environment, and how to deal with environmental problems. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.
Introductory course for biological science majors emphasizing the principles of systematics and biodiversity, population genetics and origins theories, ecology, and anatomy and physiology. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory, which accompanies BIOS 114, will involve dissection as well as experimentation. A field project involving the La Mirada Creek is included. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Writing for competency in the biological sciences. Students will get instruction and practice in science writing for the biological sciences as well as the two portions of the writing competency requirement. At the end of the course, students will take the timed writing portion of the writing competency requirement. Notes: This course is required for all biological sciences, human biology and environmental science majors. It is highly recommended that this course be taken during the student's sophomore year, but it may be taken later. Grade Mode: A.

The study of the organs, tissues, functions and responses to environment of typical flowering plants and the morphology and life history of the major lower plant groups. Field work required, including collection and classification of native plants for the Biola Herbarium. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. There will be some Saturday field trips. Grade Mode: A, N.

A study of the basic concepts of physiological regulation from the level of the cell to the integrated intact organism including neural, muscular, and neuro-endocrine regulatory systems. Laboratory includes human systems analysis and electrophysiology. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour pre-lab, three hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

Integrates principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics toward understanding structure and function of the gene. Emphasizes quantitative analysis of genetic data and explores current issues of genetic engineering from technical and ethical viewpoints. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours lab. Grade Mode: A, N.
An advanced study of human physiology that emphasizes the mechanisms of homeostasis at the cellular, organ, and system levels. Neural, vascular, respiratory, excretory, digestive, and endocrine systems are studied. Advanced Physiology includes a major laboratory research project. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
An introduction to the general concepts of the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems, including physiological ecology, speciation and evolutionary theory. Laboratory includes field trips and a research project. Grade Mode: A, N.
Literature and laboratory or field research of a specific subject or technique in biology; advanced students gain experience in experimental design, laboratory investigation and technical writing. Notes: Special approval required. Requires a written report. May be taken in subsequent semesters for a total of 4 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Literature research followed by oral presentation, group discussion and evaluation; independent thought and study stressed. Notes: May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Professionally supervised participation in pre-approved research or a project at an off-campus site. Documentation of the time spent and the activities performed as well as a written paper explaining the project are required. Notes: Special Approval required. A minimum of thirty hours of involvement. May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

An introduction to philosophy through a study of the principal ethical theories and thinkers; basic ethical problems and related biblical teaching. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Philosophy credit. Grade Mode: A.

Select a minimum of 8 credits in Organismal Biology Electives

The biology of vertebrates, stressing structure and function. Laboratory dissection of representative vertebrates emphasizes comparative anatomy. Grade Mode: A, N.
Taxonomy and morphology of invertebrate phyla; laboratory dissection of invertebrates. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Introduction to oceanography, marine plant and animal diversity, and ecological relationships. Lab sessions will include field trips. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Taxonomy, life history, physiology, molecular basis, ecology, and morphology of animal parasites with emphasis on those affecting humans. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Systematics, distribution, physiology, behavior and ecology of birds. Field identification emphasized. Lecture/Lab Hours: Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trip. Saturday field trips are required. Grade Mode: A.

Select a minimum of 8 credits in Environmental Science Electives

Environmental analysis of natural resources in relation to people and policy. Focus is on ethnobotany, ecological agriculture, and land stewardship. Employs a discussion format both in classroom and field settings. Emphasis on grappling with difficult practical and ethical problems. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Environmental analysis and natural resources analysis in relation to society and developmental issues. Focus on ecological sustainability and sustainable society in the context of various factors that are bringing environmental degradation and impoverishment of people and cultures. Topics include tropical agriculture, hunger, poverty, international debt, appropriate technology, relief programs, missionary earthkeeping, conservation of wild nature, land tenure and land stewardship. Employs a discussion format grappling with difficult practical and ethical problems and issues that require deep and personal thought. Notes: Biola or Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Systems level perspective on landforms and ecosystems. Includes analysis and interpretation of field data, remotesensing data derived from satellites and aircraft and geological information systems (GIS). Field trips to and analysis of forests, wetlands, lakeshores, and rivers. Includes application to policy and land use planning. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Field study of lakes and other freshwater systems with applications to planning and management. Includes an introduction to limnology and investigation of representative lakes, streams, and wetlands of the region and compares the North American Great Lakes with other great lakes of the world and their stewardship. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Microorganisms exist in all areas of nature, ranging from soils and waters to extreme environments, which are too harsh for the existence of humans, animals or plants. Understanding the role played by microorganisms in these environments is critical to our survival and quality of life. Such roles include cycling of elements, breakdown of organic material and pollutants, contribution to geological processes, causing diseases, water quality and waste water treatment, and the biodeterioration of materials. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.
Systematics, distribution, behavior and ecology of the common plants and animals of the selected domestic or international sire or region. Emphasis is on the site's biodiversity, ecology, and associated conservation issues. Trips to domestic sites may occur during Interterm or Summer terms, as well as on Saturdays or weekends during the school year. Domestic sites may include the LA region, the Sierra, the Grand Canyon, and the Channel Islands. Trips to international sites may occur in the Interterm or Summer term and may include studies world-wide. Both domestic and international sites will vary from year to year based on faculty interest and student support and enrollment. Notes: Students taking this course as an elective will have different assignments than BIOS and BIES majors. Credits vary based on different lengths of time at the study site. Grade Mode: A.
Investigation of contemporary problems in environmental stewardship including the use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, pollution, appropriate land use and development, third world concerns, and preservation of wild nature. In addition to developing a Christian environmental ethic from a stewardship perspective, the course considers such movements and issues as deep ecology and ecofeminism, animal rights, wilderness ethics, wildlife management, biodiversity, and agro-ecology. Emphasis on considering concrete, current ethical debate. Notes: Biola or Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
The dilemmas of dangerous knowledge in environmental and medical activities are investigated, including stem cell research and applications, fetal tissue research, human gene manipulation, transgenic bioengineering, genetically modified crops, release of bioengineered organisms into natural ecosystems, and emerging disease, the ethics of environmental activism, and the religious roots of ethical values. This course uses a seminar format in which topics are presented by student teams including presentations, panel discussions, and debate. Current attempts to develop a theological basis for bioethics are considered. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Introduction to the fundamentals of environmental health, with an introduction to environmental epidemiology and environmental medicine. Environmental pollutants and their sources, effects of environmental pollution on the environment and public health, environmental control agencies, methods of pollution control, environmental law and policy, environmental and public health research agencies, environmental epidemiology, environmental medicine, and environmental stewardship are included. Field trips and lab assignments complement the materials covered in lectures. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
This course will provide an understanding of the importance of geographic information systems software (GIS) that is used worldwide to create maps and analyze digital data and photos for use in many disciplines. Within the biological and environmental sciences it is used in environmental impact reports, city or regional planning, and species and ecosystem management plans. Students will create maps and analyze data gained from the web or created by themselves. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours laboratory, weekly. Notes: Must have good computer skills and be familiar with Microsoft Excel. Grade Mode: A, N.
A field-oriented course to study and identify the common plants and animals found within the major plant and animal communities of Southern California. Lecture/Lab Hours: Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field, including one or two extended field trips. Grade Mode: A.
Principles of conservation biology with applications to sustainable human society and biospheric integrity. An integrative approach to biology and society that interrelates population biology, ecological principles, biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem functions, and human society in the context of biospheric degradation. The course develops a stewardship perspective rooted in biological principles and directed at conservation of plant and animal species, biotic communities, ecosystems, and human society. Included are topics of human development, poverty, and economic growth.Fee: $95 Notes: Biola and Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Ecological and theoretical foundations for ecosystem and biotic community restoration. This course develops ecological principles for ecosystem restoration and applies them to redeeming and restoring degraded and damaged ecosystems and endangered species. Field studies include analysis of restoration and rehabilitation work with Kirtland Warbler, an officially designated wild river, coastal dunes, kettle-hole bogs, deforested lands, degraded residential and farming sites, and abandoned oil wells. A practical field laboratory is included in which techniques are applied to a specific site. Notes: Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Au Sable is a Christian institute focusing on field studies from a stewardship perspective. Biola is a participating member of the institute. Courses are taught at field stations in Michigan, Washington, Florida and India. Coursework taken through the institute can be counted as elective credit in the Biological Sciences, or may be substituted for specific major requirements. Notes: May be taken for a total of 16 credits with different content. Grade Mode: A.
Selected topics in environmental science. Notes: May be taken for a total of 8 credits with different content. Biola or Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Selected topics in natural resource management. Notes: May be taken for a total of 8 credits with different content. Au Sable offering. Grade Mode: A.
Literature and laboratory or field research of a specific subject or technique in biology; advanced students gain experience in experimental design, laboratory investigation and technical writing. Notes: Special approval required. Requires a written report. May be taken in subsequent semesters for a total of 4 credits. Grade Mode: A.
This course is taken as an arranged course in consultation with an academic advisor. Course is taken when it is determined that a student is deficient in content and/or credits in a given subject matter. The specific content of the course will be recorded on the student's transcript to indicate a student's completion of the major specific requirement(s) for graduation in that major. Notes: May be taken for credit multiple times for a maximum of 6 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Literature research followed by oral presentation, group discussion and evaluation; independent thought and study stressed. Notes: May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Professionally supervised participation in pre-approved research or a project at an off-campus site. Documentation of the time spent and the activities performed as well as a written paper explaining the project are required. Notes: Special Approval required. A minimum of thirty hours of involvement. May be taken twice for a maximum of 2 credits. Grade Mode: A.

Quantitative introduction to the chemistry of the atmosphere and air pollution, energy and climate, toxic organic compounds, water pollution and purification, soil chemistry and waste disposal. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory, weekly. Grade Mode: A, N.

The following minimum of 27 credits of supporting sciences from the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Engineering and Mathematical Sciences are also required including:

Principles and theories of the structure and properties of matter including stoichiometry, atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonding, molecular structure, nomenclature, chemical reactions, states of matter, gas laws and solutions. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

Continuation of General Chemistry I. Subjects include chemical kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, solubility, acidity, electrochemistry, coordination complexes and various special topics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: A minimum grade of a "C-" is required to subsequently register in CHEM 321 and 322 or CHEM 301 and CHEM 311. Grade Mode: A, N.

The first semester of the traditional yearlong course in organic chemistry. Structure, properties and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds with emphasis on reaction mechanisms. An introduction to the major functional groups and the instrumental methods for structure determination: IR, NMR, and MS. Grade Mode: A.

Basic laboratory techniques for the synthesis, isolation, purification and analysis of organic compounds including the major chromatographic methods, TLC, GC, LC. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Covers the basic nomenclature, structure, properties and reactivity of organic compounds and biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Includes radical reactions and other topics essential to environmental and biochemical studies. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture weekly. Notes: This is a one semester terminal course and thus does not serve as a prerequisite for CHEM 302 or BIOS/CHEM 411. May not fulfill the requirement for medical school or other related health professions. Fulfills the requirement for environmental science and human biology majors. Grade Mode: A.

Lab techniques and experiments related to the Basic Organic and Biochemistry lecture course. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Nature of statistical methods, description of sample data, fundamental concepts of probability, probability distributions, sampling, estimation, correlation and regression, application of same. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Prepares the student for biostatistical application essential to practice in evidence-based professions. Content includes: descriptive statistics; probability theory and rules; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling distributions; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing; experimental design; ANOVA; linear and multiple regression; contingency table analysis; non-parametrics; survival analysis; discussion of the use of statistics in journal articles. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Credit given for only one of 210 and 318. Grade Mode: A.

An introduction to earth science including: processes that shape the earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere; plate tectonics, earth history and the fossil record, natural resources and environmental concerns. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

An optional laboratory experience designed to utilize hands-on investigations of geologic materials and processes, including minerals, rocks, topographic and geological maps, in order to support and augment the topics covered in the introductory geology course (PHSC 103). One field trip is required and is credited as one of the lab sessions. Lecture/Lab Hours: 3 hours per week. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum science credit. Grade Mode: A.

A study of mechanics, heat and sound. Intended for non-Physical Science majors. Principles are treated quantitatively but without a calculus requirement. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.
Continued from Physics I; includes electricity, magnetism, elementary circuits, optics, and modern physics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Grade Mode: A, N.

Application of the laws and theories of mechanics, heat and sound through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics I. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Application of the laws and theories of electricity, magnetism, circuits and optics through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics II. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Grade Mode: A.

Secondary Education

An interdisciplinary approach to the study of the environment using concepts from ecology, biology, chemistry, geology, the social sciences and Scripture to understand the interplay of natural resources, how humans are affecting the environment, and how to deal with environmental problems. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Introductory course for majors emphasizing the principles of cellular and molecular biology, genetics, and development. Grade Mode: A.

Introductory course for biological science majors emphasizing the principles of systematics and biodiversity, population genetics and origins theories, ecology, and anatomy and physiology. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory accompanies BIOS 111 and is divided between observational and experimental approaches, with emphasis on the collection and interpretation of quantitative data. Frequent lab discussion of relevant issues and literature will be included. Grade Mode: A.
This laboratory, which accompanies BIOS 114, will involve dissection as well as experimentation. A field project involving the La Mirada Creek is included. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Writing for competency in the biological sciences. Students will get instruction and practice in science writing for the biological sciences as well as the two portions of the writing competency requirement. At the end of the course, students will take the timed writing portion of the writing competency requirement. Notes: This course is required for all biological sciences, human biology and environmental science majors. It is highly recommended that this course be taken during the student's sophomore year, but it may be taken later. Grade Mode: A.

An introduction to the structure and the function of the systems of the human body. Integration and interaction of these systems in maintaining homeostasis will be a point of focus. Laboratories will provide students the opportunity to observe and interact with human anatomical structures as well as perform relevant physiological experiments. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

A study of the basic concepts of physiological regulation from the level of the cell to the integrated intact organism including neural, muscular, and neuro-endocrine regulatory systems. Laboratory includes human systems analysis and electrophysiology. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour pre-lab, three hours laboratory. Grade Mode: A, N.

Discusses the molecular organization and function of cells and their organelles, with emphasis on chromosome structure, gene expression, membrane structure and function, energy conversion, and experimental methods used to study subcellular components. Grade Mode: A.
Integrates principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics toward understanding structure and function of the gene. Emphasizes quantitative analysis of genetic data and explores current issues of genetic engineering from technical and ethical viewpoints. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, four hours lab. Grade Mode: A, N.
An introduction to the general concepts of the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems, including physiological ecology, speciation and evolutionary theory. Laboratory includes field trips and a research project. Grade Mode: A, N.

Principles and theories of the structure and properties of matter including stoichiometry, atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonding, molecular structure, nomenclature, chemical reactions, states of matter, gas laws and solutions. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

Continuation of General Chemistry I. Subjects include chemical kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, solubility, acidity, electrochemistry, coordination complexes and various special topics. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory; one hour recitation, weekly. Notes: A minimum grade of a "C-" is required to subsequently register in CHEM 321 and 322 or CHEM 301 and CHEM 311. Grade Mode: A, N.

The first semester of the traditional yearlong course in organic chemistry. Structure, properties and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds with emphasis on reaction mechanisms. An introduction to the major functional groups and the instrumental methods for structure determination: IR, NMR, and MS. Grade Mode: A.
Covers the basic nomenclature, structure, properties and reactivity of organic compounds and biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Includes radical reactions and other topics essential to environmental and biochemical studies. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture weekly. Notes: This is a one semester terminal course and thus does not serve as a prerequisite for CHEM 302 or BIOS/CHEM 411. May not fulfill the requirement for medical school or other related health professions. Fulfills the requirement for environmental science and human biology majors. Grade Mode: A.

A survey of U.S. History from the time of European settlement, to the colonial period, to independence from Britain, the formation of the republic and the constitution, the issues of the early 1800s, and the Civil War.

Nature of statistical methods, description of sample data, fundamental concepts of probability, probability distributions, sampling, estimation, correlation and regression, application of same. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Grade Mode: A.
Prepares the student for biostatistical application essential to practice in evidence-based professions. Content includes: descriptive statistics; probability theory and rules; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling distributions; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing; experimental design; ANOVA; linear and multiple regression; contingency table analysis; non-parametrics; survival analysis; discussion of the use of statistics in journal articles. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Math credit. Credit given for only one of 210 and 318. Grade Mode: A.
An introduction to philosophy through a study of the principal ethical theories and thinkers; basic ethical problems and related biblical teaching. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Philosophy credit. Grade Mode: A.
A study of mechanics, heat and sound. Intended for non-Physical Science majors. Principles are treated quantitatively but without a calculus requirement. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours lecture, one hour recitation weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A, N.

Application of the laws and theories of mechanics, heat and sound through experiment. Laboratory to accompany Physics I. Lecture/Lab Hours: Three hours laboratory weekly. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

The history, organization and function of the legislative, judicial and executive branches of the American government. Includes one hour per week involving students in a local government civic service or life experience activity. Satisfies the state requirement in institutions in American history. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum US History credit. Meets the requirement for United States Constitution for California teacher certification. Grade Mode: A.
A survey of psychology as an empirical/behavioral science with a consideration of underlying philosophical bases in light of a Christian worldview. Topics to be surveyed include development, cognition, learning, motivation, physiology, socialization, personality and psychopathology. Notes: Approved for Core Curriculum Behavioral Science credit. Grade Mode: A.

Select at least 4 credits of Biological Science elective courses. Student teaching (12 credits) may be completed at the graduate level and is not required for undergraduate graduation through LEDU 450 and LEDU 452.

This course examines the structure and function of the school, foundations of education, qualities required for teacher effectiveness, and contemporary issues in education. Successful completion of this course constitutes one of the requirements for admission to the Teacher Preparation Program. CBEST must be taken or basic skills requirement met during this course for acceptance to a credential program. Lecture/Lab Hours: A 25-hour fieldwork practicum component is required. Notes: Special approval required. Must submit Certificate of Clearance forms and valid negative TB test results. Credential candidates must pass this course with a grade of "B-" or higher. Grade Mode: A.

Application of psychological principles to the education process, role of the teacher and learner, human growth and development, learning styles, motivation, memory, transfer of learning, measurement and evaluation, research and experimentation in learning theory. Notes: Special approval required. Restricted to formal application and acceptance to the School of Education. Credential candidates must pass this course with a "B-" or higher. This course is designed to fulfill the University's writing competency requirement for credential students. Grade Mode: A.

Survey of the theories, programs, and instructional practices for English language development, including first and second language acquisition and individual factors affecting language acquisition. Strategies for the application of theory to classroom practice and instruction in content area literacy are emphasized. Principles of educational equity, diversity, and cultural and linguistic responsiveness are examined. Lecture/Lab Hours: A 10-hour fieldwork practicum component is required. Notes: Credential candidates must pass this course with a "B-" or higher. Valid Certificate of Clearance and negative TB test results required for fieldwork. CalTPA #1. Grade Mode: A.

Methods and materials for teaching reading through content areas in secondary schools; attention to reading techniques, testing, and individualization. Lecture/Lab Hours: A 35-hour fieldwork practicum component is required. Notes: Credential candidates must pass this course with a grade of "B-" or higher. Valid Certificate of Clearance and negative TB test results required for fieldwork. CalTPA #2. Grade Mode: A.

During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, Single Subject candidates relate the Common Core and the state-adopted K–12 academic content standards for candidates in their specific subject area to major concepts and principles in their discipline, including planning, organizing, and implementing effective instruction (Grades 7–12). Grade Mode: A.

The course emphasis is curriculum and instruction through the planning and teaching of a variety of developmentally and ability-appropriate instructional strategies for all learners, including Universal Design of Learning and Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTTS), differentiation, and assessment. Candidates will complete 60-hours of fieldwork. Candidates will design and teach several classroom lessons in local secondary schools.

Full-time laboratory experience in school classrooms under the direction of qualified supervising master teachers and University supervisors. University seminar required. Notes: Special approval required. Restricted to formal application. Must pass course with a grade of "B-" or higher. CalTPA #4. Candidates doing student teaching are limited to a maximum of 15 credits that semester with approval. Must register for LEDU 452 if completing student teaching in one semester. (See also SEED 514/515). Grade Mode: A.

See LEDU 450. Notes: Special approval required. Restricted to formal application. Must pass course with a grade of "B-" or higher. Grade Mode: A.

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