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Program Requirements

Students enrolled in the Master of Arts in Education program must meet and maintain the following requirements during their program. Please note that program requirements vary by concentration. 

Curriculum and Instruction

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and also maintain a 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Obtaining Curriculum and Instruction Certificate
    Students who pass any four of the six courses in the concentration with a grade of "B" or higher will qualify for the Curriculum and Instruction Certificate which can be requested by filling out the Curriculum and Instruction Certificate Request Form.

Early Childhood

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and a “C” or higher in all early childhood courses, and also maintain a cumulative 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Prerequisite Requirements
    SEED 535 or equivalent
  4. TB Test
    For California residents
    — Students must submit documentation of tuberculosis (TB) test clearance administered or TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire three months prior to starting early childhood coursework.
  5. Certificate of Clearance
    For California residents
    — Students must obtain a Certificate of Clearance through the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC).
  6. Fieldwork Requirements
    The following early childhood concentration courses have fieldwork requirements that must be met by students:
    • SEED 556: 9 hours in a preschool setting
    • SEED 557: 18 hours in a TK or Kinder setting
    • SEED 558: 9 hours in a K or 1st Grade setting
    • SEED 559: 12 hours In a 1st or 2nd Grade setting
    • SEED 579: 75 hours in a preschool setting (must be completed in California)

    For California residents — Students must download the Fieldwork Assignment Guide, and fill out Online Fieldwork Placement Site Request Form by the second week of the semester. Students will be placed in sites that meet the following criteria:

    • Cannot be in a school where a family member teaches or works
    • Must be in a WASC-accredited school
    • Must be an approved, CDP Level 4 — permitted Master Teacher or equivalent
    • Cannot be a previous placement
    • Child Development Permit candidates must be in compliance with NAEYC Standard 7:
      • Standard 7A — Opportunities to observe and practice in at least two of the three early childhood age groups (birth age–3, 3–5, 5–8)
      • Standard 7B — Opportunities to observe and practice in at least two of the three main types of early education settings (early school grades, child care centers and homes, Head Start programs)

    For non-California residents — The School of Education will not place students taking early childhood courses outside of California. The following three steps must be completed every semester:

    1. Complete an Online Fieldwork Placement Site Request Form by the second week of the semester.
    2. Request an Early Childhood Field Placement Letter from the School of Education (early.childhood@biola.edu).
    3. Contact schools in local area, and find a placement that meets the course fieldwork requirement. This should be a classroom that engages in developmentally, culturally and linguistically appropriate practices. Additionally, the early childhood classroom teacher should have at least three years teaching experience in the current early childhood grade level.
  7. Applying for and renewing Child Development Permit (optional)
    • Applying for permit
      Once students have completed all of their early childhood concentration coursework with a “C” or higher, they can apply through the School of Education for a California Child Development Permit. Students must make an appointment with a credential analyst to verify completion of all requirements and complete the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) application for the desired permit level. An appointment can be made by calling the School of Education at (562) 903-4843.
    • Professional growth for permit renewal
      Upon earning a Child Development Permit and receiving employment in an early childhood education setting, the permit holder must identify a professional growth advisor at the place of employment and scheduled an appointment to develop a professional growth plan. The plan will need to be signed by the permit holder’s professional growth advisor to be eligible for permit renewal (every 5 years). Professional growth is required for all permit renewals except the Associate Teacher Permit. If a qualified professional growth advisor is not available at the place of employment, the permit holder may contact Biola to see if a professional growth adviser is available through the School of Education.

Induction/Clear Credential

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and a “B-” or higher in all induction courses, and also maintain a cumulative 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Induction Early Completion Proof
    For early completion option only
    — Students must have at least three years of documentable teaching experience as teacher of record, have positive administrator recommendations, and have an extensive record of professional development in various sections of the CSTP.

Multiple Subject Credential

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and a “B-” or higher in all credential courses, and also maintain a 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. RICA State Examination
    Students earning a California Multiple Subject Preliminary Teaching Credential must pass the RICA exam by the time they finish their credential program.
  4. Basic Skills Requirement
    Students must meet the Basic Skills Requirement to apply for student teaching. 
  5. Complete subject matter program or pass CSET
    To apply for student teaching students must present evidence of passing all subtests of the CSET or a letter verifying completion of a state-approved subject matter program.
  6. U.S. Constitution Requirement
    To apply for student teaching, the U.S. Constitution requirement must be met by coursework, exam or CSU degree.
    • Biola coursework: Earn a “C” or better in HIST 107, HIST 108, HIST 200, YMDT 201, YMDT 220, or POSC 225. Students receiving AP college credit for these courses will also meet this requirement.
    • Transfer coursework: Submission of a transcript and a course description or verification letter from college that indicates the U.S. Constitution requirement has been met.
    • Exam: U.S. Constitution competency exam is available at Biola University in September and January. Exams are also given at other universities, or online through the U.S. Constitution Exam website.
    • Degree: B.A./B.S. degree at a CSU campus (UC degree holders must meet the requirement from either of the two options listed above).
  7. CPR Certification
    Students must earn their CPR certification during the course of their program (infant, child and adult). American Heart Association or American Red Cross guidelines must be met. No fully online courses accepted.
  8. TB Test
    Students must submit documentation of tuberculosis (TB) test clearance administered or the TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire three months prior to starting credential coursework.
  9. Teaching Performance Assessments
    California law requires potential teachers to pass Teaching Performance Assessments (CalTPAs) as one of the steps to earning a teaching credential. These assessments — made up of two cycles — are designed to measure how well a candidate meets the Teaching Performance Expectations (TPEs), which define what teachers should know and be able to do. CalTPA Cycle 1 is taken during SEED 538, and CalTPA Cycle 2 is taken during SEED 512.

    Details regarding the CalTPAs and TPEs are available from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

    Passage of both CalTPA cycles is required in order to receive formal recommendation from Biola for a California Multiple Subject Preliminary Teaching Credential.
  10. Fieldwork Requirements
    The following credential courses have fieldwork requirements that must be met by students:
    • SEED 519: 25 hours of fieldwork (10 hours for full-time teachers)
    • SEED 541: 10 hours of fieldwork
    • SEED 520: 35 hours of fieldwork (10 hours for full-time teachers)
    • SEED 538: 60 hours of fieldwork (15 hours for full-time teachers)

    Each student’s fieldwork placements are determined by the Field Placement Coordinator. Students can request a specific school/teacher for the following semester's placement. In order to make this request, the Fieldwork Placement Request Appeal must be filled out and returned to the Field Placement Coordinator before the last day of class in the previous semester. A submission of this form does not guarantee a student’s request will be fulfilled. The decision to grant the request will be determined by the Director of Elementary Education. Students will be notified by email whether or not their request was approved. If approved, the requested placement must meet the following criteria:

    • Cannot be in a school where a family member teaches or works
    • Must be with a fully credentialed teacher who has EL Authorization and at least three years of experience
    • Cannot be a previous placement
  11. Student Teaching Requirement
    Student teaching is the final set of courses in earning a California Multiple Subject Preliminary Teaching Credential. Students will enroll in both SEED 512 and SEED 513. Students will have two full-time, eight-week placements in WASC-accredited schools — one in a lower grade and the other in an upper grade. Biola University supervisors mentor student teachers by making regular site visitations and giving weekly seminars.

    Overseas Student Teaching
    Students have the opportunity to student teach overseas in a variety of countries in accredited K-12 international and private schools. An overseas assignment can count as one of the two student teaching placements. The other must be completed at a California public school. Below is the two-part process to apply to student teach overseas:
    • Part I: Initial Interest
      1. Complete the Overseas Student Teaching Interest Form one year before student teaching.
      2. Schedule an an appointment with the Director of Elementary Education by calling the School of Education front desk (562) 903-4843.
    • Part II: Application
      1. If permission is granted to apply, complete CCTECC application (sent by email).
      2. Submit application along with two letters of recommendation to the Field Placement Coordinator.
      3. Schedule an interview with the Director of Elementary Education. 
  12. Applying for California Credential
    Once students have completed all of their California preliminary credential requirements, they must apply through the School of Education in order to be formally recommended for their credential. Students must complete the following steps:
    • Meet with a Biola Credential Analyst
      Make an appointment with a credential analyst in the School of Education by calling (562) 903-4843.
    • Bring the following requirements
      1. Application processing fee (check payable to Biola University)
      2. Basic Skills Requirement official passing scores
      3. CSET official passing scores or subject matter verification letter
      4. RICA official passing scores
      5. U.S. Constitution (official transcripts or scores)
      6. CPR certification
      7. Valid Certificate of Clearance
      8. CalTPA Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 official passing scores
      9. Official transcripts verifying bachelor's degree and passage of all credential coursework (not needed if baccalaureate is from Biola University).
  13. Applying for ACSI Credential (optional)
    After meeting the California preliminary credential requirements, students will be eligible for the ACSI Teacher Certification, with the addition of SEED 501, 570, and TTBE 732 (a baccalaureate from Biola meets this requirement with BBST 465 and 6 credits of Bible). Students will apply directly to ACSI.

Personalized

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and also maintain a 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Additional Requirements
    Other program requirements vary based program elements.

Single Subject Credential

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and a “B-” or higher in all credential courses, and also maintain a 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Basic Skills Requirement
    Students must meet the Basic Skills Requirement to apply for student teaching
  4. Complete subject matter program or pass required subtests of CSET
    To apply student teaching, students must present evidence of passing all required subtests of the CSET or a letter verifying completion of a state-approved subject matter program.
  5. U.S. Constitution Requirement
    To apply for student teaching, the U.S. Constitution requirement must be met by coursework, exam or CSU degree.
    • Biola coursework: Earn a “C” or better in HIST 107, HIST 108, HIST 200, YMDT 201, YMDT 220, or POSC 225. Students receiving AP college credit for these courses will also meet this requirement.
    • Transfer coursework: Submission of a transcript and a course description or verification letter from college that indicates the U.S. Constitution requirement has been met.
    • Exam: U.S. Constitution competency exam is available at Biola University in September and January. Exams are also given at other universities, or online through the U.S. Constitution Exam website.
    • Degree: B.A./B.S. degree at a CSU campus (UC degree holders must meet the requirement from either of the two options listed above).
  6. CPR Certification
    Students must earn their CPR certification during the course of their program (infant, child and adult). American Heart Association or American Red Cross guidelines must be met. No fully online courses accepted.
  7. TB Test
    Students must submit documentation of tuberculosis (TB) test clearance administered or the TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire three months prior to starting credential coursework.
  8. Teaching Performance Assessments
    California law requires potential teachers to pass Teaching Performance Assessments (CalTPAs) as one of the steps to earning a teaching credential. These assessments — made up of two cycles — are designed to measure how well a candidate meets the Teaching Performance Expectations (TPEs), which define what teachers should know and be able to do. CalTPA 1 is taken during SEED 539 and CalTPA 2 is taken during SEED 514.

    Details regarding the CalTPAs and TPEs are available from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

    Passage of both CalTPA cycles is required in order to receive formal recommendation from Biola for a California Single Subject Preliminary Teaching Credential.
  9. Fieldwork Requirement
    The following credential courses have fieldwork requirements that must be met by students:
    • SEED 519: 25 hours of fieldwork (10 hours for full-time teachers)
    • SEED 541: 10 hours of fieldwork
    • SEED 533: 35 hours of fieldwork (10 hours for full-time teachers)
    • SEED 539: 60 hours of fieldwork (15 hours for full-time teachers)

    Each student’s fieldwork placements are determined by the Field Placement Coordinator. Students can request a specific school/teacher for the following semester's placement. In order to make this request, the Fieldwork Placement Request Appeal must be filled out and returned to the Field Placement Coordinator before the last day of class in the previous semester. A submission of this form does not guarantee a student’s request will be fulfilled. The decision to grant the request will be determined by the Director of Secondary Education. Students will be notified by email whether or not their request was approved. If approved, the requested placement must meet the following criteria:

    • Cannot be in a school where a family member teaches or works
    • Must be with a fully credentialed teacher who has EL Authorization and at least three years of experience
    • Cannot be a previous placement
  10. Student Teaching Requirement
    Student teaching is the final set of courses in earning a California Single Subject Preliminary Credential. Students will enroll in both SEED 514 and SEED 515. Students will have one full-time, sixteen-week placement in a WASC-accredited school. Biola University supervisors mentor student teachers by making regular site visitations and giving weekly seminars.

    Overseas Student Teaching
    Students have the opportunity to student teach overseas in a variety of countries in accredited K-12 international and private schools. An overseas assignment can count as one of the student teaching placement requirement (eight weeks). The half must be completed at a California public school. Below is the two-part process to apply to student teach overseas:
    1. Part I: Initial Interest:
      • Complete the Overseas Student Teaching Interest Form one year before student teaching.
      • Schedule an an appointment with the Director of Secondary Education by calling the School of Education front desk (562) 903-4843.
    2. Part II: Application:
      • If permission is granted to apply, complete CCTECC application (sent by email).
      • Submit application along with two letters of recommendation to the Field Placement Coordinator.
      • Schedule an interview with the Director of Secondary Education.
  11. Applying for California Credential
    Once students have completed all of their California preliminary credential requirements, they must apply through the School of Education in order to be formally recommended for their credential. Students must complete the following steps:
    • Meet with a Biola Credential Analyst
      Make an appointment with a credential analyst in the School of Education by calling (562) 903-4843.
    • Bring the following requirements
      1. Application processing fee (check payable to Biola University)
      2. Basic Skills Requirement official passing scores
      3. CSET official passing scores or subject matter verification letter
      4. U.S. Constitution (official transcripts or scores)
      5. CPR certification
      6. Valid Certificate of Clearance
      7. CalTPA Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 official passing scores
      8. Official transcripts verifying bachelor's degree and passage of all credential coursework (not needed if baccalaureate is from Biola University).
  12. Applying for ACSI Credential (optional)
    After meeting the California preliminary credential requirements, students will be eligible for the ACSI Teacher Certification, with the addition of SEED 501, 570, and TTBE 732 (a baccalaureate from Biola meets this requirement with BBST 465 and 6 credits of Bible). Students will apply directly to ACSI.

Special Education

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses, a “B-” or higher in all special education courses, and also maintain a cumulative 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Concentration Prerequisite Requirements
    SEED 561: Issues in Special Education
    must be the first concentration course taken before or with other special education concentration courses.
  4. TB Tests
    For California residents
    — Students must submit documentation of tuberculosis (TB) test clearance administered or TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire three months prior to starting special education coursework.
  5. Certificate of Clearance
    For California residents
    — Students must obtain a Certificate of Clearance through the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC).
  6. Fieldwork Requirement
    The following special education concentration courses have fieldwork requirements that must be met by students:
    • SEED 562: 10 hours
    • SEED 563: 10 hours
    • SEED 564: 10 hours
    • SEED 580: 10 hours


    For California residents
    — The School of Education will place students taking special education courses in California. The following two steps must be completed every semester:

    1. Complete a Fieldwork Application.
    2. After being notified by email of the assigned placement, contact the principal and cooperating teacher to set up fieldwork schedule.


    For non-California residents
    — The School of Education will not place students taking special education courses outside of California. The following three steps must be completed every semester:

    1. Complete a Fieldwork Application.
    2. Request a Special Education Field Placement Letter from the School of Education (specialeducation@biola.edu).
    3. Contact schools in local area, and find a placement that meets the course fieldwork requirement. This should be a classroom that has at least two documented second language learner and at least one identified student with special needs.
  7. Applying for Institution-Sponsored Special Education Certificate
    Students who have have completed 12 credits of special education concentration courses with a grade of “B-” or higher, may apply for the Special Education Certificate by submitting the Special Education Certificate Checklist Form.
  8. Applying concentration coursework toward Special Education Credential
    Students who are interested in applying their special education concentration coursework toward earning a Preliminary Education Specialist Instruction (Mild/Moderate) Credential can do so by filling out a Change of Program Form to switch into the Masters of Arts in Education, Special Education (Mild/Moderate) Credential program. Upon approval, students will need to complete:
    • The credential prerequisite requirement (three options)
    • The remaining credential courses
    • Other credential requirements (e.g. Basic Skills Requirement)


    Students who do not complete their Special Education Concentration fieldwork in California will not be eligible to apply their coursework towards a credential.

Special Education (Mild/Moderate) Credential

  1. GPA Requirement
    Students must receive a grade of “B” or higher in M.A. core and capstone courses and a “B-” or higher in all special education credential courses, and also maintain a 3.0 GPA.
  2. Capstone Requirement
    Students have the option of completing their capstone as a Curriculum Research Project (SEED 598) or Thesis (SEED 599). Students will register for their capstone course for one credit per semester, and may take it up to three semesters.

    The capstone project must be taken the final semester and approved by the professor of the course one semester prior to taking the class.
  3. Prerequisite Requirement
    Students must meet the prerequisite requirement by one of the three following options:
    1. Hold a California Multiple or Single Subject Teaching Credential
    2. Two online graduate courses that can be taken concurrently with special education credential courses:
      • SEED 518 (3 credits)
      • SEED 530 (3 credits; 35 hours of fieldwork or 10 hours for full-time teachers)
    3. The following in-person graduate or undergraduate coursework:
      • SEED 519 (2 credits; 25 hours of fieldwork or 10 hours for full-time teachers) or LEDU 301
      • SEED 526 (3 credits) or LEDU 330
      • SEED 541 (3 credits; 10 hours of fieldwork) or LEDU 341
      • SEED 520 or SEED 525 (3 credits; 35 hours of fieldwork or 10 hours for full-time teachers), or LEDU 420/425
  4. RICA State Examination
    Students earning a Preliminary Education Specialist Instruction (Mild/Moderate) Credential must pass the RICA exam by the time they finish their credential program.
  5. Basic Skills Requirement
    Students must meet the Basic Skills Requirement to apply for student teaching
  6. Complete subject matter program or pass subtest of CSET
    To apply for student teaching, students must present evidence of passing all required subtests of the CSET or a letter verifying completion of a state-approved subject matter program.

    CSET passage must be in a core subject area: art, English, music, mathematics (including foundational-level), multiple subject, foreign language, science (including foundational-level), social science.
  7. U.S. Constitution Requirement
    To apply for student teaching, the U.S. Constitution requirement must be met by coursework, exam or CSU degree.
    • Biola coursework: Earn a “C” or better in HIST 107, HIST 108, HIST 200, YMDT 201, YMDT 220, or POSC 225. Students receiving AP college credit for these courses will also meet this requirement.
    • Transfer coursework: Submission of a transcript and a course description or verification letter from college that indicates the U.S. Constitution requirement has been met.
    • Exam: U.S. Constitution competency exam is available at Biola University in September and January. Exams are also given at other universities, or online through the U.S. Constitution Exam website.
    • Degree: B.A./B.S. degree at a CSU campus (UC degree holders must meet the requirement from either of the two options listed above).
  8. CPR Certification
    Students must earn their CPR certification during the course of their program (infant, child and adult). American Heart Association or American Red Cross guidelines must be met. No fully online courses accepted.
  9. TB Test
    Students must submit documentation of tuberculosis (TB) test clearance administered or the TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire three months prior to starting credential coursework.
  10. Fieldwork Requirement
    The following special education concentration courses have fieldwork requirements that must be met by students:
    • SEED 532: 20 hours
    • SEED 562: 10 hours
    • SEED 563: 10 hours
    • SEED 564: 10 hours
    • SEED 580: 10 hours
    • SEED 582: 10 hours
    • SEED 583: 40 hours (10 hours for full-time teachers)


    The School of Education will place students taking special education courses with fieldwork. However, the following two steps must be completed every semester:

    1. Complete a Fieldwork Application.
    2. After being notified by email of the assigned placement, contact the principal and cooperating teacher to set up fieldwork schedule.
  11. Student Teaching Requirement
    Student teaching is the final set of courses in earning a Preliminary Education Specialist Instruction (Mild/Moderate) Credential. Students will enroll in both SEED 584 and SEED 585 and will have a single 16-week placement in a public school. Biola University supervisors will be assigned to every student teacher.
  12. Intern Credential Eligibility
    Students will enroll in Intern Support Seminars (SEED 611, 612, 613, 614) each semester they are teaching under the intern credential. By the end of the program, students need to have taken all 4 seminar courses (12 total credits). Student teaching (SEED 584/585) will not be required in the intern program.

    Students will be eligible to be hired under Biola School of Education’s intern credential once the following requirements are met:
    • Prerequisite requirement met (three options)
    • Passed SEED 561, 564, 562
    • Met the U.S. Constitution requirements
    • Met the Basis Skills Requirement
    • Passed required subsets of CSET, possess evidence of completing a subject matter waiver program, or hold a California teaching credential in a core subject area
    • Valid negative TB test or TB Risk Assessment Questionnaire
    • Valid Certificate of Clearance
    • Letter from school/district verifying an offer of employment
  13. Applying for California Credential
    Once students have completed all of their Preliminary Education Specialist Instruction (Mild/Moderate) Credential requirements, they must apply through the School of Education in order to be formally recommended for their credential. Students must complete the following steps:
    • Meet with a Biola Credential Analyst
      Make an appointment with a credential analyst in the School of Education by calling (562) 903-4843.
    • Bring the following requirements
      1. Application processing fee (check payable to Biola University)
      2. Basic Skills Requirement official passing scores
      3. CSET official passing scores in a core subject area, subject matter verification letter, or hold a California teaching credential in a core subject area
      4. RICA official passing scores
      5. U.S. Constitution (official transcripts or scores)
      6. CPR certification
      7. Valid Certificate of Clearance
      8. Official transcripts verifying bachelor's degree and passage of all special education credential coursework (not needed if baccalaureate is from Biola University).
      9. Completed Transition Plan (signed by both applicant & Director).

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