DepartmentsCenter for Christian Thought
Department of Philosophy
Biola AffiliationsEmployee, Faculty



  • Ph.D., University of Southern California
  • M.A., Talbot School of Theology
  • B.A., Westmont College


Publications (Selected)

  • I Told Me So: The Role of Self-Deception in Christian Living (Eerdmans, 2009).

  • Introspection Vindicated : Defense of a perceptual/observational model of introspection (Ashgate, 2005)

  • “Jesus and Confucius on Responding to Injury: A Comparative Reflection”; Christian Scholar’s Review (XXXVIII:3, Spring 2009).

  • “Religious Experience, Conceptual Contribution, and the Problem of Diversity”; Journal of Philosophical Research (V. 32, 2007).

  • “An Internalist Rejoinder to Skepticism”; International Studies in Philosophy (XXXV/4 2003) and Proceedings of the 20th Word Congress of Philosophy:

  • “The Problem of Moral Luck and the Parable of the Landowner”; Philosophia Christi, 2.3.1 (2001).

  • “A Defense of Moderate Haecceitism”; Grazer Philosophische Studien, vol. 6 (2000).

  • "Aristotle's Employment of Platonic Forms in Zeta 6," The Modern Schoolman, LXXVII, Nov., 1999, pp. 79-94.


  • “God, The Good Life, and Higher Education” Humanities Dept. Colloquium, Lanzhou University, China. April, 2006.

  • “Religious Experience, Conceptual Contribution, and the Problem of Diversity” Southern California Philosophy Conference, Oct. 2003.

  • “Conceptual Contribution and the Evidential Force of Religious Experience” American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division Meeting, Philadelphia, Dec., 2003. Society of Christian Philosophers, Far West Regional Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. Feb. 2003.

  • “The Dimensions and Normative Authority of Religious Experience: A Response to Audi” Working Conference on Religious Experience, Biola University Feb. 2, 2002.

  • “Lumps and Statues: A Strange Coincidence: A Response to Mark Moyer” American Philosophical Association, Western Division Meeting, San Francisco, March 30-April 4, 2001.

  • “The Parable of the Landowner and the Problem of Moral Luck” Society of Christian Philosophers, Pacific Regional Meeting, La Mirada, CA, Jan. 30-31, 1998. (2)

  • “An Internalist Rejoinder to Skepticism” Paideia: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, August 10-16, 1998 American Philosophical Association, Central Division Meeting, Chicago, May 6-9, 1998.

Research Interests

  • Contemporary Epistemology
  • Philosophy of Religion
  • Metaphysics/Ontology
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